Introduction to GFM

GitHub uses what we're calling "GitHub Flavored Markdown" (GFM) for messages, issues, and comments. It differs from standard Markdown (SM) in a few significant ways and adds some additional functionality.

If you're not already familiar with Markdown, you should spend 15 minutes and go over the excellent Markdown Syntax Guide at Daring Fireball.

If you prefer to learn by example, see the following source and result:

If you're interested in how we render Markdown files, you might want to check out Redcarpet, our Ruby interface to the Sundown library.

Differences from traditional Markdown


The biggest difference that GFM introduces is in the handling of linebreaks. With SM you can hard wrap paragraphs of text and they will be combined into a single paragraph. We find this to be the cause of a huge number of unintentional formatting errors. GFM treats newlines in paragraph-like content as real line breaks, which is probably what you intended.

The next paragraph contains two phrases separated by a single newline character:

Roses are red
Violets are blue


Roses are red
Violets are blue

Multiple underscores in words

It is not reasonable to italicize just part of a word, especially when you're dealing with code and names often appear with multiple underscores. Therefore, GFM ignores multiple underscores in words.



perform_complicated_task do_this_and_do_that_and_another_thing

URL autolinking

GFM will autolink standard URLs, so if you want to link to a URL (instead of setting link text), you can simply enter the URL and it will be turned into a link to that URL.

Fenced code blocks

Markdown converts text with four spaces at the front of each line to code blocks. GFM supports that, but we also support fenced blocks. Just wrap your code blocks in ``` and you won't need to indent manually to trigger a code block.

Syntax highlighting

We take code blocks a step further and add syntax highlighting if you request it. In your fenced block, add an optional language identifier and we'll run it through syntax highlighting. For example, to syntax highlight Ruby code:

require 'redcarpet'
markdown ="Hello World!")
puts markdown.to_html

A bit of the GitHub spice


In addition to the changes in the previous section, certain references are auto-linked:

* SHA: be6a8cc1c1ecfe9489fb51e4869af15a13fc2cd2
* User@SHA ref: mojombo@be6a8cc1c1ecfe9489fb51e4869af15a13fc2cd2
* User/Project@SHA: mojombo/god@be6a8cc1c1ecfe9489fb51e4869af15a13fc2cd2
* \#Num: #1
* User/#Num: mojombo#1
* User/Project#Num: mojombo/god#1


Task Lists

Further, lists can be turned into Task Lists by prefacing list items with [ ] or [x] (incomplete or complete, respectively).

- [x] @mentions, #refs, [links](), **formatting**, and <del>tags</del> supported
- [x] list syntax required (any unordered or ordered list supported)
- [x] this is a complete item
- [ ] this is an incomplete item

This feature is enabled for Issue and Pull Request descriptions and comments. In those contexts, task lists will be rendered with checkboxes that you can check on and off.

See the Task Lists blog post for more details.


The newline and underscore modification code can be seen below. If you find a bug in the rendering, we'd love to hear about it. Browse through open Issues and report new Issues on the GitHub-flavored Markdown Issues page.